Civil War Re-enactments Foster Tourism
(CNN.com, 12 November 2004)
RICHMOND, Virginia (AP) -- From Spotsylvania to Shiloh, Civil War enthusiasts continue to re-enact clashes from the conflict fought nearly 150 years ago, traveling to battlefields with their weapons, uniforms and passion for history.
Now instead of just allowing re-enactors places to stage their skirmishes, local and state officials are starting to underwrite the events, recognizing that their investment can pay big dividends.
"In one word, it's tourism," said Jim Campi, policy director for the Civil War preservation Trust. "It's taken awhile but local and state officials have come to realize that Civil War battlefields and battlefield preservation can mean big bucks for their community."
The Washington group refers to battlefields as low-impact economic engines because tourists who visit spend their dollars on things like gasoline, lodging and restaurant meals.
"They don't need the police and fire departments. They aren't trying to put their kids though county schools," Campi said. "These are the kind of persons localities want to attract."
A Civil War Preservation Trust study found that tourists at seven battlefields it studied (including Gettysburg in Pennsylvania, Shiloh in Tennessee, and Virginia's New Market and Fredericksburg/Spotsylvania sites) generated nearly $157 million in total visitor expenditures last year, and $22.4 million in local and state tax revenues.
Civil War sites are the destinations of about 11.5 percent of visits to history-rich Virginia, according to a 2003 state tourism study.
State tourism officials are "delighted to see preservation groups seeing tourism as economic development, something we've obviously advocated for many years," Virginia Tourism Corp. director Martha Steger said.
'Good economic development'
This May, Spotsylvania County spent $250,000 for the restaging of the bloody Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. The two weeks of fighting between the troops of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Gen. Robert E. Lee in May 1864 left about 18,000 Union soldiers and about 12,000 Confederates killed, wounded or missing.
The three-day event drew 4,000 re-enactors and 10,000 paying spectators to the area, said Henry "Hap" Connors Jr., vice chairman of the county's board of supervisors.
Doug Barnes, deputy county administrator, said the re-enactment cost $40,000 more than it took in, but sales and meals taxes and merchandise sales have yet to be fully measured. Also, he said, the re-enactment was "more of a future marketing tool," which has translated into visitors' increased interest in the area.
"We are trying to show people that preservation and heritage tourism make for good economic development," Connors said. "We don't need to pave over battlefields to put big-box stores on them -- we need to instead look at these historic and cultural treasures as opportunities to create new economic-development opportunities."
The first-time county sponsorship was a prelude to other events, including plans to commemorate the battle's sesquicentennial in 2014, Connors said.
Connors sees historical preservation as a way to stem sprawl, but added that he and other slow-growth advocates aren't necessarily at odds with developers.
"I'm not opposed to anybody making money, but we are starting to let them know what we want," he said. "We're starting to negotiate from a position of strength. We have tools available to manage this growth and we're starting to use them."
In Kentucky, state officials budgeted $10,000 to host the Battle of Perryville reenactment on October 9-10, said Kurt Holman, manager of the Perryville Battlefield historical site.
"Port-a-johns are the biggest single bite," Holman said. Musicians, hay for tents and horses, and overtime and lodging for park rangers also were among the expenses.
About 5,900 spectators attended and 800 re-enactors came to Perryville this year, up from about 4,700 last year, state park officials said. Each overnight guest spends nearly $91 in the area; a day visitor about $39, according to Kay Berggren, executive director of the local Convention and Visitors Bureau.
Perryville re-enactors also pay a registration fee, but Holman said that money goes directly to the Perryville Battlefield Preservation Association.
The battle for 'heritage tourists'
Campi said many government officials are starting to realize that "when you preserve a significant portion of the battlefield, people will come and see it. There's been a real upsurge in visits to historic sites like battlefields."
Such "heritage tourists" tend to have more money and are willing to spend it, he said. Many of them are retirement age, and have the time to stay in the community for more than a day.
But the key to preserving history for future generations is making the Civil War relevant or "cool" to young people, said Rob Hodge, a re-enactor and co-founder of Wide Awake Films, which coordinated Spotsylvania's event in May and produces Civil War footage.
"You have to get to the children when you're talking about such a significant event. Even if it's 140 years old you have to look at why it resonates in the 21st century," Hodge said.
The question is "How do you make it viable -- how do you make it a competitor to the addiction to sports or the addiction to survival shows?" he said. "Cutting-edge technology might be the savior of the past."
One proposal is to offer wireless Internet access on battlefields, where visitors can download and view imagery and information onto their laptop computers while they stand where troops once clashed.
"We're competing against action movies," he said. "But the great American screenplay is the Civil War. The great American horror is the Civil War."
The nation suffers from "a great cultural amnesia," Hodge said. "It's our job, our mission, to try to breathe life into some of these things that collect dust."